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سپل حسینی پسری از ترکمانچای | ترکمن چای , ترکمانچای , Torkamanchay - خلاصه فصل 6 (پویایی جمعیت ها و اجتماعات زیستی) - زیست پیش دانشگاهی

سپل حسینی پسری از ترکمانچای | ترکمن چای , ترکمانچای , Torkamanchay

پسری از خطه ترکمانچای - sepel hoseiny

پویایی جمعیت ها و اجتماعات زیستی
1)جمعیت
   1-تعریف:مجموع افراد هم گونه ای که در زمان خاص، در یک محل زندگی می کنند./ جامعه زیستی: مجموعه ای از جمعیت های مختلف که در یک محیط زندگی می کنند و با یکدیگر ارتباط دارند.

   2-ویژگی ها:
*اندازه:تعداد افراد تشکیل دهنده جمعیت
*عوامل موثر:
تولد و مهاجرت به درون جمعیت=افزایش اندازه
مرگ و مهاجرت به بیرون جمعیت =کاهش اندازه

*آهنگ افزایش ذاتی(r) = آهنگ تولد(B) - آهنگ مرگ(D)

نتایج کاهش اندازه جمعیت:
افزایش امکان انقراض
افزایش امکان آمیزش بین خویشاوندان ــــــ> کاهش تنوع ژنی ـــــــ‍‍> افزایش همانندی ژنی
کاهش توان بقای جمعیت در برابر تغییرات محیطی
افزایش افراد خالص ـــــ> بروز صفات نامرغوب به صورت خالص مرغوب


*تراکم: تعداد افراد یک جمعیت که در یک زمان در یک واحد سطح یا حجم(برای جانداران آبزی) زندگی می کنند.
کاهش تراکم باعث افزایش فاصه بین افراد ، کاهش تماس افراد با هم و کاهش توان تولید مثلی جمعیت می شود.

*پراکنش (توزیع) = چگونگی پراکندگی افراد در محیط زیست
*اتفاقی(تصادفی)
*یکنواخت
*دسته ای



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